Aminoacids are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20(+) amino acids.
non-polar, aliphatic residues
GGU GGC GGA GGG
GCU GCC GCA GCG
GUU GUC GUA GUG
UUA UUG CUU CUC CUA CUG
AUU AUC AUA
CCU CCC CCA CCG
polar, non-charged residues
UCU UCC UCA UCG AGU AGC
ACU ACC ACA ACG
positively charged residues
CGU CGC CGA CGG AGA AGG
negatively charged residues
1 = essential amino acid
2 = conditional essential amino acid
3 = non-essential amino acid
Amino & proteins explained
Like the Periodic table of elements, there is decided to give the foundation of biology a specific list of basic components. These building blocks have a common feature that sets them apart from other biological chemicals. Most important are the amino and carboxyl groups, amino acids have a side chain or R group attached to the α-carbon. A way to separate them is to look at their level and way of activity. Building Blocks Of Proteins
The most simple amino acid is called glycine (glyco, “sugar”). In the mid-1950s scientists agreed that 20 amino acids (called standard or common amino acids) were the essential building blocks of proteins.
Over 140 amino acids are known to occur naturally in proteins and thousands more occur in nature or are synthesized in the laboratory. Many non-proteinogenic amino acids are active as;
intermediates in biosynthesis,
post-translationally formed in proteins,
possess a physiological role (e.g. components of bacterial cell walls, neurotransmitters, and toxins),
natural or man-made pharmacological compounds,
present in meteorites and in prebiotic experiments (e.g. Miller–Urey experiment).
Technically, any organic compound with an amine (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. The proteinogenic amino acids (Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation. The word “proteinogenic” means “protein creating”. ) are small subset of this group that possess central carbon atom (α- or 2-) bearing an amino group, a carboxyl group, a side chain and an α-hydrogen Levo conformation, with the exception of glycine, which is achiral, and proline, whose amine group is a secondary amine.