Sugar addiction is a buildup imbalance of blood sugar. When a person eats excess carbs over a long period of time, their body has difficulty balancing blood sugar levels. Many different cells stop being responsive to insulin. This condition is called insulin resistance. As a direct result of this the body produces more insulin to try to balance the blood sugar levels which in turn fuels the vicious cycle of frequent hunger and intense cravings for more carbs to ‘feed’ the excess insulin. It is possible that hypoglycemia turns into diabetes when more favorable conditions are met (such as genetic or diseases). The essence of this problem is the slow but steady dependence training (road to addiction) and craving development.
Adrenals and Thyroid
Underactive thyroid which causes extreme fatigue can lead a person to reach for a quick energy source like carbs or sugar. Similarly, stressed and overworked adrenals (due to chronic stress or disease) can lead to carb cravings. When the body is in a constant fight or flight mode (high-stress level) carbohydrates are used for fast energy. Cortisol, the stress hormone that is released, tries to rebalance the body by demanding more fast energy resources (craving for carbohydrates)
Low serotonin and melatonin levels
Lack of sleep surges the cravings for carbs tremendously, research has proven this. A study at the University of Chicago discovered that leptin levels decreased and ghrelin levels increased among sleep-deprived men. The hormone ghrelin tells the brain that the body needs food and seems not to have many limitations. The hormone leptin, which is decreased by inadequate sleep, tells the brain that there is no need for food (not hungry). Similar studies found that people who slept for less than 6 hours tended to eat more food and preferred calorie dense food. People who slept 8 hours a night did eat less food in general.
PMS/Menopause and Hormone Imbalance
Insulin resistance can occur in women during certain times in their cycle or at certain points in their life as their progesterone and estrogen drops. As insulin production increases they might suddenly find themselves experiencing intense cravings for sweets and carbs. Addressing hormone imbalances is key.
About carbohydrates, there are many stories. One of them is Calorie restriction as an important factor in prologue life. Calorie restriction prolongs lifespan in numerous mammalian species and delays the development of aging-associated diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. The mechanism is unknown. From an efficiency perspective, one might expect calorie restriction to reduce DNL (known as de novo lipogenesis = DNL), which is a wasteful energetic process. However, the opposite is observed. Calorie-restricted mice demonstrate a four-fold increase in adipose tissue DNL. It is not known whether this mediates the therapeutic effects of calorie restriction. But it is highly plausible that it mediates favorable metabolic effects because enhanced DNL in adipose tissue confers improved glucose homeostasis.
Calorie restriction is a process which should be applied for a prologue period of time in life. Restriction sounds harsh but one should take the following in consideration as the best way of restriction;
Calorie efficiency would be a better way to improve life and prologue lifespan. What is calorie efficiency?
|Fasting, does it “work”?
A most interesting and always returning phenomena is; Fasting. Periods of not or little eating and drinking. People use this method for different reasons. Most of them are religious in nature. But after mentioning the terms calorie restriction and limitation it should be clear that all are related. Consider fasting as one of the more extreme forms of restriction. It is important to know what is happening in the body.
· Fasting is always set for a specific period in time (days/weeks/months)
· It is only allowed for people with a healthy body and mind. People with a disease or some more or less chronic problem are not advised to take part.
· The first goal is the detoxification of the body by a mild form of starvation. When the body is deprived of food it starts using its storage. By using stored products it releases toxic rest materials from these storages. By doing so it enables the body to clean itself.
· Fasting improves mental resistance to addiction. Carbohydrate cravings must be controlled. By the right application of fasting it is possible to control food addictions.
The major problem of fasting actions that they are not applied in the right way. Some examples:
· Most fasting actions have got a religious background and a more or less duty related function. People follow the rules but take sharp corners to relieve the burden.
· Religious fasting start and end with a party where the use of alcohol or excess food is common.
· During these “fasting periods” there is a timeframe of not eating and drinking but when this is finished people eat and drink too much at a wrong time. The body gets shocked by the disturbance of the biological food pattern. The result is counterproductive.
· Fasting has time to prepare and a time to cure/stop. It is unhealthy to start and stop suddenly.
Is fasting positive for the health and does it have a life-prolonging effect?
· If fasting is applied the right way and right time it has some very strong effects
· 1 / detoxification
· 2 / calorie restrictive periods
· 3 / addiction decreasing
· 4 / mentally improvement
Fasting should become a part of regular society as a common preparation for healthy aging as it undoubtedly improves the physical and mental state of every healthy person. Good fasting has a scientific background and is not religious bounded it is important to disconnect these two in the studies.
This is the time of diabetes. To understand the importance of the disease and the impact of it to state some facts.
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge.
Symptoms include excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises the majority of people with diabetes around the world and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.
Symptoms may be similar to those of type 1 diabetes but are often less marked. As a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years after onset, once complications have already arisen. Until recently, this type of diabetes was seen only in adults but it is now also occurring increasingly frequently in children.
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia with blood glucose values above normal but below those diagnostic of diabetes, occurring during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and at delivery. They and their children are also at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the future.
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed through prenatal screening, rather than through reported symptoms.
Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycemia
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) are intermediate conditions in the transition between normality and diabetes. People with IGT or IFG are at high risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes, although this is not inevitable.
All over the world, people pay a lot of attention to cooking. If interested it is easily possible to spend 24/7 on cooking programs on TV and the internet. The sheer endless possibilities of food combinations are a continuous source of interests and happiness. When studying the nearly endless stream of advice on how to eat with diabetes it is clear that the advice having not been adjusted for the last few years. Still, most organizations mention the food dividing of
25 % Fats
50 % Carbohydrates
Based on the facts already mentioned, the advice should be changed into;
30 % Proteins
30 % Fats
40 % Carbohydrates
Most of the food recipes did undergo changes. All are rooted in the regular kitchen with minor carbohydrate corrections. This does not help. Only “food congruence” ( ref. Arnaud van der Veere) offers the solution to the real problem.
Food congruence is the method of matching foods with specific interactive properties in a meal. Many good cooks do already apply the method but often are not aware of the facts/reasons why the combinations work.
The use of specific herbs or other ingredients is important for the digestive system for different reasons:
The application of food congruence science depends on different factors such as:
Carbohydrates play an important role in all these issues as they are the major contributor of energy and life.
Proteins which have carbohydrate groups attached to the polypeptide chain. Secreted extracellular proteins are glycosylated. Glycoproteins are often integral membrane proteins, they play a role in cell to cell interactions. The way White blood cells attach to the blood vessel lining is through glycoproteins called lectins.
Blood type refers to the type of glycoprotein on the red blood cells. The type A blood, refers to the A antigens, or A glycoproteins, on the red blood cells. Glycoproteins help to stimulate the process of coagulation of platelets to clot blood when activated.
Glycoproteins are involved in keeping the skin healthy. Glycoproteins are on the surface of skin cells, called epithelial cells. These help to attach the skin cells to each other, forming a tough barrier to protect the body. Cadherins, also a glycoprotein, help the skin hold together. Other samples are:
|Lubricant and protective agent||Mucins|
|Transport molecule||Transferrin, ceruloplasmin|
|Immunologic molecule||Immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens|
|Hormone||Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)|
|Enzyme||Various, e.g., alkaline phosphatase, patatin|
|Cell attachment-recognition site||Various proteins involved in cell-cell (e.g., sperm–oocyte), virus-cell, a bacterium–cell, and hormone–cell interactions|
|Antifreeze protein||Certain plasma proteins of cold-water fish|
|Interact with specific carbohydrates||Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies|
|Receptor||Various proteins involved in hormone and drug action|
|Affect folding of certain proteins||Calnexin, calreticulin|
|Regulation of development||Notch and its analogs, key proteins in development|
|Hemostasis (and thrombosis)||Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes of platelets|
A number of naturally occurring substances have already been identified as having high glycoprotein content a clear example are the medicinal mushrooms. Reishi, maitake, cordyceps, shiitake and oyster mushrooms all have beta-glucan polysaccharide. There are a number of documented studies on these medicinal mushrooms, which boost the immune system, aid communication between immune cells and rogue cells. This is also a reason why mushrooms take an important place in the Chinese Traditional Medicines (TCM).
Carbohydrate calculation suggestions
Most people wish to have a guideline to calculate the daily needs of carbohydrate. For those interested in self-help or advise it is recommended to use these formulae. The best way is to use the different methods together and choose the best option by experience. Most methods are based on American systems which are often not completely 100% suitable for other nationalities. In the most practical way, it should be possible to create a more sophisticated detailed calculation method which includes race and food pattern.
Mifflin St. Jeor Calculation
10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (y) + 5
10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (y) – 161.
MEN: BMR = 879 + 10.2 (weight in kg)
WOMEN: BMR = 795 + 7.2 (weight in kg)
BMR = 370 + (21.6 x LBM) *LBM = (total weight in kg) x (100 – bodyfat %) /100
Most Basic Formula Possible:
MEN: BMR = (Body Weight in lbs x 8-10)
WOMEN: BMR = (Body Weight in lbs x 7-9)
Activity Factor Multiplier
The activity factor takes into account everything done in a day and not just training. After the BMR is calculated to use one of these multipliers to find the number of calories needed to stay at the same weight (maintenance calories).
BMR x 1.2: Sedentary
BMR x 1.3-1.4: Lightly Active
BMR x 1.5-1.6: Moderately Active
BMR x 1.7-1.8: Very Active
BMR x 1.9-2.2: Extremely Active
|Gender||Age (years)||Sedentary||Moderately Active||Active|
Conclusion; carbohydrates are a major part of all forms of life. As a human, we face the fact of overeating, wrong diets and not selective consumption. Professional advice and education are needed to combat diseases related to the use of carbohydrates. But carbohydrates are neither dangerous nor suspicious. The common sense of using it in the right proportions is a matter of training and guidance. Most people need professional advice.