The neural system is the true lifeline and transfers all “orders” of the brain into other parts of the body. Each signal passes through a connected range of neurons and passes the neurites and dendrites with lightning speed. A true electrical system.
The most general functional definition divides neural systems into
A less known but highly active system is collectively referred to as associational systems, they carry out the most complex and least well-characterized brain functions.
The central nervous system comprises the brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem) and the spinal cord. There are over 100 trillion neural connections in the average human brain, though the number and location can vary. A synapse gives a command to the cell and the entire communication process typically takes only a fraction of a millisecond. Signals travel along an alpha motor neuron in the spinal cord 431 km/h the fastest transmission in the human body. The peripheral nervous system includes sensory neurons, which link sensory receptors on the body surface and specialized receptor structures such as the ear, with processing circuits in the central nervous system. The motor portion of the peripheral nervous system consists of two components. Motor axons that connect the brain and spinal cord to skeletal muscles which make up the somatic motor division of the peripheral nervous system. The visceral or autonomic motor division consists of cells and axons that innervate smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands.
In the peripheral nervous system, nerve cells are located in ganglia, which are simply local accumulations of nerve cell bodies (and supporting cells). Peripheral axons are gathered into nerves, which are bundles of axons, many of which are enveloped by the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, the Schwann cells. In the central nervous system, nerve cells are arranged in two different configurations. Nuclei are compact accumulations of neurons having roughly similar connections and functions, these collections of nerve cells are found throughout the brain and spinal cord. Axons in the central nervous system are gathered into tracts. Within a tract, glial cells of the central nervous system—astrocytes and oligodendrocytes—envelop the central axons.
In the sensory portion of the peripheral nervous system, sensory ganglia lie adjacent to either the spinal cord or the brainstem. The nerve cells in sensory ganglia send axons to the periphery that end in (or on) specialized receptors that transduce information about a wide variety of stimuli. The central processes of these sensory ganglion cells enter the spinal cord or brainstem. In the somatic motor portion of the peripheral nervous system, axons from motor neurons in the spinal cord give rise to peripheral motor axons that innervate muscles to control skeletal movements and most voluntary behaviors. The autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system is more complicated.
Preganglionic visceral motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord form synapses with peripheral motor neurons that lie in the autonomic ganglia. The motor neurons in autonomic ganglia innervate smooth (white) muscle, glands, and cardiac muscle, controlling most involuntary (visceral) behavior. In the sympathetic division of the autonomic motor system, the ganglia are in front of the vertebral column and send their axons to a variety of peripheral targets. In the parasympathetic division, the ganglia are found within the organs they innervate. Another component of the visceral motor system, called the enteric system, is made up of small ganglia scattered throughout the wall of the gut. This gives the impression and effect of an independent “brain system”. (2001, Sinauer Associates, Inc. Websiteshelf ID: NBK11061 )
In reference to the aging process, it is understandable that the neural system is the weak link. Many things can go and do go wrong. The first steps of neural growth and distribution are the training in childhood. Coordination is programming the neural system in where to react. Precision training is how to do it. Slowly movement is built that includes coordination, speed, and accuracy. Through training of repetition more useful reflexes are built. With a built up “database” of reflexes more room in the brain and neural system for other movement is created. The most important part of reflexes is the unconscious reaction to programmed and suspected events. This programming gives space for other movements. By programming, a complete personal movement and reaction sequences are created. A good sample is the learning how to drive a car or bike.
Within this, due to the multifunctional neural actions, fear and joy are embedded. Emotions become a part of the neural system and have an influence on personality and movement. How does it work?
Neurons have three basic parts:
How does the neural system transfer its signal messages from one side to the other side of the system? The main reason is the existence of electric potential differences. These are called; Action potentials and they are generated when voltage-gated sodium channels open as a result of the passage of local electrical currents across the membrane.
These local currents occur at the site of an electrical stimulus
1 – depolarization produced by a generator potential at a sensory ending
2 – depolarization of the cell body produced by an EPSP (excitatory post-synaptic potential)
3 – depolarization produced by ligand-gated channels (receptors) on a post-synaptic membrane
Whenever a depolarization of the axon is sufficient to reach a threshold (when the resting potential drops to around – 50 to -55 mv), voltage-sensitive sodium channels in the membrane open. As a consequence, some Na+ ions move down both electrical and voltage gradients towards the Na+ equilibrium potential (about +40 to +60 mV) and cause the membrane potential to reverse for less than a millisecond.
The All or Nothing Law (which applies to single axons) states that an electrical stimulus of a particular size to an axon either produces an action potential or it does not.
The Threshold stimulus is the stimulus size (mV or mA) that just initiates an action potential
A stimulus that is insufficient to initiate an action potential is known as a Subthreshold Stimulus
A stimulus greater than the threshold stimulus is called a Suprathreshold stimulus: the action potential is no different from that induced by a threshold stimulus and the swing of membrane potential is constant in size
Classes of Neurotransmitters:
Biogenic amines (contains one or more amine groups)
Dopamina, Norepinephrine, and epinephrine
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Endorphins and enkephalins
The neural system is fragile and it is possible to disrupt it. The following options of disruption do happen:
The sensitivity of the neural system is known as one of the major causes of aging. Keeping the system healthy and productive is a need. Stimulation a must. Neurex is still one of the only exercises to keep the neural system in a good condition until high age.
The connection between the neural, enzymatic and hormone system is one of impulse transfer. The brain is a Reaction system that only acts upon an external or internal action. Hormones are produced upon a need of the body while enzymes must make the use of the hormones possible. Many enzymes also prepare, for instance, food, factors for the hormones to act upon. Realizing the potential complete dependency of all three systems it is clear that any interruption leads to a domino effect in all systems.
Aging creates such disturbances by the following actions:
Even the smallest error leads by accumulation to a final halt of the tissue, organ or even body. Waste is something impossible to avoid. At every place, no matter where and how, when something works it leaves some waste. It is impossible to have a perfect score at all time.
Within the mentioned systems, it is possible to stimulate, train and increase the neural system and reach, doing so, a higher level of recuperation and cleaning. The neural system is in its best shape when used frequently and by the challenge. The challenge of the neural system create new pathways and that, in itself, promote the production and efficiency of the enzyme and hormonal system. It must be said that the more active a person is able to create new pathways, the higher the concentration of steroid hormones is.
It is proven that neural stimulation by improved activity also promotes the concentration and production of steroid hormones more than the peptide versions. This unbalances could be lowered by the import of high amino-rich foods through the digestive tracks (use of concentrated amino acids like Valine, Leucine, Iso-leucine, Glutamine, Arginine to name the most important).
During seminars and lectures one of the most important questions is; does external adding of hormones help with the aging process?
The answer is no. Why not?
The use of externally produced hormones is a disturbance of the local system. When an external dose is used the local homeostasis must react. First, it must accept the incoming intruder as part of the system. This intruder has a function which is stronger than the available levels. The hormone has a specific function and starts to act upon that. The body responds by reacting on the action potential of the steroid hormone. Enzymes must be produced to follow “orders” of the intruder and the neural system is set upon action to transmit information. All these actions need time to build up, stabilize and broken down.
A body seeks homeostasis at all time. The intruding steroid hormone will have an effective period. Often around 8 weeks and in some cases, it can go up to 12 weeks. After this period the body tries to undo the changes made after all the body has its own programmed homeostasis which the intruder did disturb.
Steroid hormones have a direct effect on muscles. These muscles are stimulated to be active. If the user is active the muscles respond by growth and demand for amino acids and ATP (energy). The use of steroids promotes activity, even in small doses. If there are not enough activity chances are high that the effectiveness of the steroid hormone is too low the measure.
Beside activity, the use of steroids also demands a food schedule that suits its use. There is a high demand for proteins, vitamins, and minerals. But the exact amounts may vary per person and intensity of activity. The exact amounts need to be guessed as calculation at this moment is still not possible. The effect of high doses of vitamin and minerals can become toxic or at least disturb to the homeostasis and create waste in the system. Waste that improves the already existing accumulation and disturbance of the system.
The effect of steroids on the body, even at low doses, is considered a disturbance and a reaction follow. One of the major reaction is a lowering of individual production by the equivalent or more of the imported product. Depending on the age it may result in a dependency and surely a fall back after stop. A fall back is the time when the external user is stopped but the internal production is still down or even not existing. The personal production must be promoted again, which, at a certain age, is no longer possible. This is a high risk.
The use of eternal products is temporary. Every external product is not of the same chemical composition as the personal body production. There are always chemical differences. These differences create waste during the actions as some of the products cannot be fully used. The generated waste could be cleaned but also some will be left behind causing hindering for other actions.
Using external action potential can exhaust the personal system. Most people who start using the products are in one way or the other in a form of mental stress. They eager to become younger, otherwise they do not take this drastic step to use the products. Being in a stress already caused an increase in hormonal production. The complete package of hormones (external and internal) causes a rush of energy which promotes activity and causes an emotional feeling of being younger. Actual nothing changes as age is not a clock that can be turned back.
The use of external products give a temporary feeling of youth but by using it for a prolonged period of time the effects are the opposite of what is desired for.