Physical fitness need to be build up through the following pathways;
Within some of these pathways (not all) it is possible to apply two different methods although one is applied more than the other:
A definition of proper exercise form is relatively slow movement speed and full movement range. All training repetitions were performed in approximately six seconds, with two seconds for each lifting movement (concentric muscle action) and four seconds for each lowering movement (eccentric muscle action).
The muscles are divided into major and smaller groups. For exercise purpose, it is good to combine larger and smaller groups in one training. A general overview of muscles is:
The leg is the part of the lower limb that lies between the knee and the ankle, the thigh is between the hip and knee and the term “lower limb” is used to describe the colloquial leg. The leg from the knee to the ankle is called the cnemis (née’is) or crus. The calf is the back portion and the shin is the front.
The Quadriceps are worked through exercises such as Squats, Lunges, Barbell Hack Squats, and any other Squat variations.
The hamstrings are the huge muscle group on the back of your thighs.
The calf area: the gastrocs, the soleus, and the tibialis anterior. This is a small group but part of the large.
Chest (location see chart)
The part of the body between the neck and the abdomen, enclosed by the ribs and the breastbone; the thorax. The chest is important but it should only receive proper attention, not more not less
Back (location see chart)
The rear part of the human body especially from the neck to the end of the spine. The back is a HUGE major muscle group — one of the biggest.
Weight training exercises like Deadlifts develop thickness in the back while Rows work on both width and thickness. Pull Up and Chin Up variations work on making the back more resilient.
Shoulders (location see chart) The area around the glenohumeral joint, the large ball-and-socket joint where the humerus joins the scapula. The smooth, rounded head of the humerus rests against the socket in the scapula. The joint is covered by a tough, flexible protective capsule and is heavily reinforced by ligaments that stretch across the joint. The ends of the bones where they meet at the joint are covered with a layer of cartilage that reduces friction and absorbs shock. A thin membrane, the synovial membrane, lines the socket and lubricates the joint with synovia. Further cushioning and lubrication is provided by fluid-filled sacs called bursae. Disorders of the shoulder include bursitis and dislocation. The group consists of many smaller groups such as front deltoids, side deltoids, and rear deltoids that make up the shoulder muscle.
Extrinsic (thoracoappendicular) muscle of shoulder; origin, medial third of superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of seventh cervical and the thoracic vertebrae and corresponding supraspinous ligaments; insertion, lateral third of posterior surface of clavicle, anterior side of acromion, and upper and medial border of the spine of the scapula; action, when scapulae are fixed, portions of muscle can act independently: cervical portion elevates scapula, thoracic portion contributes to depression of scapula; upper and lowermost portions act simultaneously to rotate glenoid fossa superiorly; when the entire muscle and especially middle part contracts, the scapulae retract; draws head to one side or backward; nerve supply, motor by accessory, sensory by cervical plexus.
The trapezius or ‘traps’ for short is the huge upper back muscle that makes a triangle shape with the point in the middle of your upper back.
Smaller muscle groups are:
The major extensor muscle of the elbow, and the only muscle on the back of the upper arm. Arises partly from the scapula below the shoulder joint but the main bulk from the back of the humerus. Forms a broad tendon which passes behind the elbow joint (separated from it by a small bursa) to be inserted on the back of the olecranon process of the ulna.
A muscle with two heads or points of origin.
The segment of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. Some exercises are pinwheel curls, hammer curls, and different types of wrist curls for the forearms. The forearms are a very important muscle group that can limit strength in other exercises.
The muscles between the thorax and the pelvis supporting the abdominal wall. The lateral parts of the wall are formed by the transverse abdominal, the internal oblique, and the external oblique. Anteriorly, on each side, a segmented muscle, the rectus abdominal, spans the distance between the inferior thoracic wall and the pelvis. Other muscles supporting the posterior aspect of the wall are the quadratus lumborum, the psoas major, and the iliacus.
Cardiovascular Fitness for Seniors
For cardiovascular fitness, a walk outside, on a treadmill or pedaling a recumbent bike is a start. Warm up the muscles and joints sufficiently before the activity. Monitor any discomfort in the hip and knee joint. This can be perceived as injury. Proceed with monitored aerobic activity at the beginning of training. Encourage to move often during the day, instead of sitting for long periods of time.
Flexibility for Seniors
Flexibility is a key component in an exercise program, especially for older inactive adults, and a necessity at the end of each workout. Tight muscles reduce the body’s range of motion, it can affect balance, reduces fluidity to the joints, and reduces the ability to perform daily tasks. Slow easy stretches are important due to lack of elasticity in the muscles. Stretches can and should be performed daily unless complaints of too much discomfort. Progressing to deeper stretches will begin to reduce discomfort until the muscles are accustomed to the stretching.
Exercise has a positive and often improving effect on health. Some of these positive targets are:
Improves physiologic parameters
(V°O2 max, cardiac output, decreased submaximal rate-pressure product)
Improves blood pressure
Improves lipid profile
Improves glycemic control
Decreases hemoglobin A1C levels
Improves insulin sensitivity
Decreases bone density loss in postmenopausal women
Decreases hip and vertebral fractures
Decreases risk of falling
Improves the quality of sleep
Improves cognitive function
Decreases rates of depression improve Beck depression scores.
Improves short-term memory
Decreases the risk of obesity
Improves symptoms in peripheral vascular occlusive disease
The use of high-speed training is facing some challenges:
Equipment/Environment Choices. Free-weights, stack-loaded machines, pneumatic machines, tubes, bands and even sandbags have all been successfully used in high-speed training research studies. But both inertia and momentum must be considered. Inertia is resistance to motion changes, and momentum is mass in motion (defined as mass times velocity). While these terms are often confused with each another, their absolute definitions are not as important as their consequences during high-speed resistance training.
Once an individual accelerates a weight to a high velocity, the potential for injury at the end range of motion is increased as the weight continues to move and the limb stops. If free weights or plate machines are used, the movement should begin to decelerate the weight before the end of the range of motion. Other feasible options are medicine balls and light plyometric work. Aquatic exercises are excellent options since resistance (drag) increases exponentially with movement speed.
Optimal Loading. Studies have shown that power can be increased in older persons using loads ranging from 20% to 80% of maximum (de Vos et al. 2005; Fielding et al. 2002; Jozsi et al. 1999; Petrella et al. 2007). This can be clarified by understanding that load-velocity relationships during lifting can be changed depending on the goal. For example, researchers have shown that balance and gait speed (Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion, more specific as a study of human motion, using the eye and the brain of observers, augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements, body mechanics, and the activity of the muscles. Gait analysis is used to assess, plan, and treat individuals with conditions affecting their ability to walk. It is also commonly used in sports biomechanics to help athletes run more efficiently and to identify posture-related or movement-related problems in people with injuries. ) are more positively affected by loads in the range of 40% of maximum, while chair stands and stair-climbing performance are more affected by loads of approximately 80% of maximum (Cuoco et al. 2004). Additionally, optimal loads may be affected by the nature of the joints being trained. Joints associated with longer bones (e.g., the knee or elbow) are more susceptible to higher training speed than those associated with shorter ones (e.g., the ankle or wrist) (Signorile et al. 2002). The bottom line is that power training can be matched to the diagnosed needs of the individual and the biomechanical capacity of the targeted joints to produce speed.
Periodization must be considered when training for power. This process begins with training cycles that target hypertrophy and strength. Power training should not be attempted until the individual has strengthened the muscles using a hypertrophy, or tissue adaptation, phase. This phase is designed to “toughen” the tissues in preparation for the added stresses of high-speed training.
The periodization design should incorporate work and recovery periods to maximize gains. This allows for increased overload throughout the training period through intermittent periods of recovery (lower-intensity training). Using ADL- specific training during these low-intensity recovery cycles “translates” increases in power to improvements in both ADL ( Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people’s daily self-care activities. ) performance and fall prevention. Practicing ADL movements—such as gait and ladder drills, object movement drills, and drills concentrating on static and dynamic balance—allows the use of increased neuromuscular capacity during motor patterns that are meaningful to daily living (Signorile 2005).
ADL-based training has been shown to be more effective than strength training in improving ADL performance in a number of recent studies (de Vreede et al. 2004; de Vreede et al. 2005). There should be sufficient taper at the end of each recovery period to evaluate the client’s progress and modify the program for the next training cycle.
Chinese fitness dancing
In the People’s Republic of China, square dancing or plaza dancing (simplified Chinese: 广场舞; traditional Chinese: 廣場舞; pinyin: guǎngchǎng wǔ; literally: “public square dance”), is an exercise routine performed to music in squares, plazas or parks of the nation’s cities. It is popular with middle-aged and retired women who have been referred to as “dancing grannies” in the English-language media. Due to its low cost and ease of participation, it has been estimated to have over 100 million practitioners, according to CCTV, the country’s official television network.
The practice has roots in both ancient and modern Chinese history. Dancing for exercise has been recorded as developed millennia ago in Emperor Yao’s China, and during the Song Dynasty, the public spaces of cities were noted for their use in performance. Most of the women who square dance came of age during the Cultural Revolution, when folk dances such as yangge were widely performed, often as propaganda. Some have confirmed that this nostalgia is one of their reasons for taking part, although the benefits of the exercise and socialization opportunities also play a role.
Square dancers dance to a variety of music, mostly Chinese popular songs, both contemporary and historic. The hobby began in the mid-1990s, as middle-aged women began doing it to keep themselves occupied.
Dancers organize themselves into rank and file. The front rank comprises the most proficient dancers, the best being in the center. Each rank back from the one in front contains a dancer who is less proficient. All the dancers face forward. This allows dancers to learn from those in the rows ahead. The back rank is often populated with beginners just learning the moves, while the front rows are well-coordinated.
Square dancing is socially engaging, active and regular. All these features are needed for a healthy approach to life. Most participants have fun doing it and have the benefits of social interaction at an age when most needed. The overall health benefits are unknown as there is no medical research on it but due to the basic ingredients, it must be considered a healthy way of moving and participating which should be encouraged.
Wear Appropriate Footwear and Clothing
Consider shoes as feet’s safety equipment. Wear shoes based on chosen activity. For example, if going to walk, wear walking shoes rather than running/tennis shoes. Opt for well-fitted, comfortable shoes that offer non-skid soles and with heel support. Shoes should be in good shape and of good quality; the tread should be ample, not worn. Like shoes, clothing also prevents injury; clothing should be loose and comfortable enough to allow fluid movement.
Know When to Stop
Exercise should never be painful. If there is a developing pain or pressure in the chest or anywhere else in the body, that could be a sign to immediately stop exercising and contact a healthcare provider. Also, be aware of dizziness, weakness, and shortness of breath. Pay attention to the heart. If the heart skips or beats uncomfortably fast, talk to the doctor immediately.
Use portable devices
The phone has many options. Year by year they increase. Step counters, stopwatches and a lot of wearables can be connected to the phone. Fitness watches provide heart and blood pressure measuring, some blood glucose while others also give calorie counts. Store this information on an external drive or computer and share it with a treating physician or healthcare provider. The more information, the better and direct help can be arranged.